By Renata A Soares
Abstract: Many developed countries are already largely deforested. Deforestation is now principally happening in developing countries, especially in the tropics, as they follow a similar path to meet their development needs. With an increasing wealthy global population, demand for land and for agricultural and forest products will continue to increase. Without a value on the local and global services provided by standing forests, there is little economic incentive to meet this demand other than through deforestation. Firm and urgent action is needed. If not, it is highly unlikely that a CO2 stabilization target that avoids the worst effects of climate change will be reached. Action on deforestation needs to be taken as part of the international negotiations. A step change is needed in the way land is used and commodities are produced and consumed. A shift to more sustainable production will be complex and challenging, but not impossible if local communities are involved in the process. Reforestation projects are also needed to help recover what was lost. There are many areas and fields producing CO2 negatively contributing to climate change effects. Why forests? Forests make crucial contributions to livelihoods, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation, in addition to many other local and global ecosystem services. Indeed, forests contributions to local livelihoods far exceed their territorial extent; more than a billion people are estimated to depend at least partially on different kinds of benefits drawn from forest.
Considered the world’s largest forest restoration program, “One Billion Trees for the Amazon” is an initiative of the state of Pará Secretariat for Environment (SEMA-PA). The main objective is to encourage citizens and society at large so that the goal of planting one billion trees until the year 2013 is achieved. This project has the potential to reduce global GHGs by 5% until 2030 , restore biodiversity, improve the quality of water and preserve threaten of extinction species. The goal of this paper is to analyze how mechanisms of reforestation can contribute to poverty reduction and preserve ecosystems services e.g. biodiversity and water services in the state of Pará, Brazil so to alleviate climate change pressures.
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